Bridge

Bridge is a structural design pattern that lets you split a large class or a set of closely related classes into two separate hierarchies—abstraction and implementation—which can be developed independently of each other.

#Bridge in Python

from __future__ import annotations
from abc import ABC, abstractmethod


class Abstraction:
    """
    The Abstraction defines the interface for the "control" part of the two
    class hierarchies. It maintains a reference to an object of the
    Implementation hierarchy and delegates all of the real work to this object.
    """

    def __init__(self, implementation: Implementation) -> None:
        self.implementation = implementation

    def operation(self) -> str:
        return (f"Abstraction: Base operation with:\n"
                f"{self.implementation.operation_implementation()}")


class ExtendedAbstraction(Abstraction):
    """
    You can extend the Abstraction without changing the Implementation classes.
    """

    def operation(self) -> str:
        return (f"ExtendedAbstraction: Extended operation with:\n"
                f"{self.implementation.operation_implementation()}")


class Implementation(ABC):
    """
    The Implementation defines the interface for all implementation classes. It
    doesn't have to match the Abstraction's interface. In fact, the two
    interfaces can be entirely different. Typically the Implementation interface
    provides only primitive operations, while the Abstraction defines higher-
    level operations based on those primitives.
    """

    @abstractmethod
    def operation_implementation(self) -> str:
        pass


"""
Each Concrete Implementation corresponds to a specific platform and implements
the Implementation interface using that platform's API.
"""


class ConcreteImplementationA(Implementation):
    def operation_implementation(self) -> str:
        return "ConcreteImplementationA: Here's the result on the platform A."


class ConcreteImplementationB(Implementation):
    def operation_implementation(self) -> str:
        return "ConcreteImplementationB: Here's the result on the platform B."


def client_code(abstraction: Abstraction) -> None:
    """
    Except for the initialization phase, where an Abstraction object gets linked
    with a specific Implementation object, the client code should only depend on
    the Abstraction class. This way the client code can support any abstraction-
    implementation combination.
    """

    # ...

    print(abstraction.operation(), end="")

    # ...


if __name__ == "__main__":
    """
    The client code should be able to work with any pre-configured abstraction-
    implementation combination.
    """

    implementation = ConcreteImplementationA()
    abstraction = Abstraction(implementation)
    client_code(abstraction)

    print("\n")

    implementation = ConcreteImplementationB()
    abstraction = ExtendedAbstraction(implementation)
    client_code(abstraction)

Output

Abstraction: Base operation with:
ConcreteImplementationA: Here’s the result on the platform A.

ExtendedAbstraction: Extended operation with:
ConcreteImplementationB: Here’s the result on the platform B.